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Главная » 2010 » Июнь » 17 » Verbal and non-verbal means of communication
Verbal and non-verbal means of communication
     Language is commonly believed to be a system of communication that consists of sounds and written symbols. The word "communication" means a special form of people's interactions in the process of learning or doing something together. The main aim of communication is exchange of all kinds of information. Means of information transfer from one person to another are divided into verbal and non-verbal. Verbal communication – is information transfer by means of words, non-verbal – is information transfer by means of different non-verbal symbols and signs (for example, drawings, e-smiles, gestures, etc).We can communicate by using our facial expressions, our tone of voice and even our whole body. Actually, in many situations, non-verbal communication can reveal more accurately what a person is feeling. Body language always speaks the truth, whereas words may often be misleading.
     There are different types of verbal communication: 1) according to existing means and tools of communication used: a) direct or immediate communication and b) indirect communication (video-lecture, broadcasting, uploading material on the Web-site, etc); 2) according to the number of participants: a) a monologue (speech of one person), b) a dialogue (speech of two people), c) a polilog (speech of several people); 3) according to communication objective: a) informing, b) persuading (including inducement, explanation, etc), c) entertaining; 4) according to the character of the situation: a) formal (business) communication; b) informal personal communication.
     It's important that for every type of communication there exist special linguistic means (words, grammar structure etc), behaviour politics and skills that should be used to gain a success in the communication process.
     For successful communication both at the office and at home, an understanding of body language is also very important. At work non-verbal communication is related to power. For example, people in charge tend to lean back in their chairs, fold their hands behind their heads and put their feet up on the desk or table. They often dominate conversations, both talking and interrupting more than others. Those who follow orders, on the other hand, are much less relaxed and tend to sit on the edge of their chairs with their arms tightly folded.
     Body language plays an equally important role at home. The interesting thing is that children are particularly quick to pick up on non-verbal signals and can distinguish between what is said and what is really meant.
     Every culture uses body language in unique but clearly interpretable ways. It is known though that some gestures are universal. Facial gestures to show certain emotions seem to be the same for people of all cultures. For example, the facial gesture to show happiness is smiling, the facial gesture to show sadness is frowning. Making eyes open wide means surprise, a clenched jaw shows anger, and the facial gesture to show disgust is raising the cheek muscles. When we tell a lie, our bodies often give the trick away when we blush or avoid eye-contact, swallow or cover our mouth with our hand.
     However, other gestures have different meanings in different cultures. Shaking one's head, for instance, or sticking out the tongue have various meanings. In the United States and Canada, it is common to make a circle with the thumb and first finger. It means "OK". In Japan, the same sign means "money". In Southern France, it stands for "zero" or "worthless". But be careful to use this gesture in Brazil or Greece, it is offensive. Intercultural interference of body language can lead to misunderstanding.
     In order to communicate everyone should know about verbal and non-verbal means of communication.
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