Moscow is the capital of Russia, its
political, economic, commercial and cultural centre. It was founded 8 centuries
ago by Yuri Dolgoruky. Historians have accepted the year of 1147 as the start
history. Gradually the city became more and more powerful. In the 13th century Moscow was the centre of
the struggle of Russian lands for the liberation from the tartar yoke. In the
16th century under Ivan the Terrible Moscow became the capital of the new
united state. Though Peter the Great moved the capital to St
Petersburg in 1712, Moscow remained
the heart of Russia.
That is why it became the main target of Napoleon's attack. Three-quarters of
the city was destroyed by fire during Napoleon's occupation, but by the
mid-19th century Moscow
had been completely restored. After the October revolution Moscow became the capital again.
is one of the largest cities in Europe. Its
total area is about nine hundred square kilometres (ancient Moscow occupied the territory of the
present-day Kremlin). The population of the city is over 8 million.
Moscow is one of the most
beautiful cities in the world. The heart of Moscow
is Red Square. It has more historic
associations than any other place in Moscow.
The Kremlin and St Basil's Cathedral (Vasily Blazheny) are masterpieces of
ancient Russian architecture. The main Kremlin tower, the SpasskayaTower,
has become the symbol of the country. On the territory of the Kremlin you can
see old cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the Palace of Congresses,
the Tsar-Cannon and the Tsar-Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world. St
Basil's Cathedral was built in the mid-16th century in memory of the victory
There is a legend that Ivan the Terrible blinded the architects Banna and
Postnik, because he didn't want them to create another masterpiece.
There are a lot of
beautiful palaces, old mansions, cathedrals, churches and monuments in Moscow. Now Moscow is being
reconstructed and we all hope that in a few years the city will become even more
There are more than 80
museums in Moscow.
The largest museums are the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov
Gallery. Other unique museums in Moscow include
the All-Russia Museum of Folk Arts, the Andrei Rublev Museum of Early Russian
Art, AlexeiBakhrushinTheatreMuseum, Mikhail Glinka
Museum of Musical Culture and many others.
Moscow is famous for its
theatres. The best-known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House. Drama theatres and
studios are also very popular.
Moscow is a city of
students. There are over 80 higher educational institutions in it, including
Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament (the Duma) and the centre of
political life of the country.