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Главная » 2010 » Июнь » 17 » Public Education in Great Britain
13:37
Public Education in Great Britain
     Education in Great Britain is compulsory and free for all chil­dren. Schooling is compulsory for 12 years, for all children aged five to 16. Nine tenth of all children are educated in state schools.
     Compulsory education begins at 5, but 3-and 4-year-olds can receive education in nursery school or in nursery classes in primary schools.
      Children attend a primary school from 5 to 11. Primary education may place in two separate schools: Infant schools and Junior schools. The first years of schooling are very important. They are the founda­tion of every child's education. There is talking and listening, reading and writing and an introduction to Mathematics and Science. The Jun­iors are streamed according to their abilities to learn into the A-B-and C-streams. The brightest go into the A-stream, the least gifted are put into the C-stream.
      Between 1945 to 1965 secondary education in Britain was largely selective. Towards the end of their 4 year in the Junior school, all the pupils had to pass their 11 examination which consisted of 3 selec­tive tests. On the results of the tests the pupils were sent to one of the main 3 types of secondary school - grammar, technical or modern. This division has proved to be inadequate: most of the parents and progressive teachers have long campaigned to have the 11 exam abolished and demanded equal opportunities for all children. But still in some parts of the country you may meet the abolished exam.
      Thus, a new type of school - the comprehensive school, has re­cently been set up, according to the Education Act of 1988 that intro­duced a National Curriculum for children aged 5-16 in all state schools in England and Wales. It consists of 10 subjects which all the children must study at school: English, Mathematics, Science, Mod­ern foreign languages, Technology and Design, History, Geography, Music, Art, P.T. Schools can offer other subjects in addition to those in the National Curriculum.
Some parents prefer to send their children to independent schools. This private sector includes the so-called public schools,-some of them are known all over the world, e.g. Eton College, Har­row College, Cheltenham Ladies College, etc. They are mostly board­ing schools where the pupils live and study. Today only 16 percent of pupils in private section of education attend boarding schools.
      Normally entrance is by examination, known as Common En­trance. These are only for the select few, who can afford money to pay tuition at these privileged educational establishments.
      About three million students enroll each year in part-time courses at further education (FE).
      Colleges and there is a much smaller proportion of full-time training.
      There are 22 universities in Great Britain; a university consists of a number of faculties: Medicine, Engineering, Commerce and Educa­tion. After 3 years of study a student may get a Bachelor degree and then proceed to the degrees of Master and Doctor. The leading uni­versities are Oxford, Cambridge (Oxbridge) and London. English universities differ from each other in date of foundation, history, tra­ditions, general organization, methods of instruction, the way of stu­dents' life, etc. Besides universities there are some higher technical educational institutions. One should say, not many children are able to receive a Higher Education, as the fees are rather high.
      In spite of high fees, Britain's universities, FE colleges and Eng­lish language schools host a large number of foreign students.
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