| People in our country have the right for
education. It is our Constitutional right. But it is not only a right, it is a
duty, too. Every boy and every girl in Russia must go to school, that is,
they must get a full secondary education.
Before children start going to school,
many of them attend kindergartens until they are six or seven. Compulsory
education in our country begins at the
age of 7, when children go to primary school. This is the first stage of their
schooling and lasts three or four years. The children learn to read, to write
and to count. They also have Drawing, Music and Physical Training classes.
Secondary stage begins from the 5 form where children have a lot of new
subjects, such as Literature, History, Natural Science, Physics, Algebra and
Geometry, a foreign language and others. Examinations are taken at the end of
the 9th and the 11th year. After passing their
school-leaving exams at the age of 16 or 17, young people receive a
Certificate of Secondary Education. Some children may leave school after the 9th
form and continue their education at vocational or technical secondary schools
Besides general regular schools there are
other types of secondary schools in Russia. There are specialized
secondary schools with a profound study of certain subjects, such as foreign
languages, Literature, Physics or others. In specialized language schools a
foreign language is taught from the second year. There are also specialized
Art, Music, Ballet and Sport schools for gifted children, and special schools
for handicapped children. Among the new types of secondary schools there are
gymnasiums and lyceums, some of which are free.
Among higher educational
institutions there are universities, institutes, academies, where the course
of studies is normally five years. To enter a higher educational institution
young people have to take entrance examinations. Higher as well as secondary
education in our country is free. But at present a lot of fee-paying independent
colleges, departments of different universities appeared in the sphere of
education. The market of services and educational services as well is very
broad and diverse now.